Rezumate Sociologie Românescă

Sociologie Românească, Vol. VIII, no. 4/2010, pp. 104-126.

 


 

SR_4_2010_copertaCopii lăsaţi acasă de emigranţi. Studiu în judeţul Bihor

Children left home by emigrants. A study in Bihor County

Floare Chipea, Sergiu Bălţătescu*

 

 

*University of Oradea

 

 

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Abstract: Starting from the limits of the current research on the phenomena of Romanian parent's migration for work by leaving the children at home, we collected data from schools throughout the Bihor County, conducted a survey with people in charge of these children and performed a secondary analysis on a survey with high school students. Result show there is a clear pattern of transnational family with fathers leaving abroad in 50% of the cases. When mothers are leaving too, children are left in charge of the extended family (mostly grandparents) or even by themselves. Among children of the migrants, those in this situation have the highest risk for school underachievement, low psychological well-being and deviant behavior. Research show that Romanian institutions that have to deal with these cases are insufficiently trained and engaged in solving the problems that appear. An integrated effort towards identification and properly dealing with these cases would definitely increase the quality of life of children left home.

Keywords: migration, transnational families, care, child welbeing, school intervention.

Cuvinte cheie: emigraţie, familie transnaţională, grijă, calitatea vieţii copilului, intervenţia şcolii.


Sociologie Românească, Vol. VIII, no. 4/2010, pp. 91-103.

 


 

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Aspecte particulare ale îmbătrânirii populaţiei din România post-comunistă – consecinţe socio-economice

Peculiar Aspects of Population Ageing in Post-Communist Romania - Socio-Economic Consequences

Maria Georgescu, Emilia Herman*

 

*University „Petru Maior" Tg. Mureş

 

 

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Abstract: This paper has an interdisciplinary character and highlights certain aspects of the demographic and economic evolution in the post-communist Romania, with their peculiarities. Population ageing, foreseen by specialists, is highlighted here also on country regions, and at national level, it is debated in relation with development economic indicators. In a comparative approach at European level, we show that the share of old people, as well as the dependency rate of old people, have, for the moment, lower values in Romania, realities that do not allow a break, a lack of initiative for specific policies. The reason, which we underline, is that in our country, in comparison with the western countries which became rich before ageing, the rhythm of demographic ageing has outrun the rhythm of economic development. Moreover, the data available for the last 18 years have allowed us to show the economic and social consequences of this ageing on several major directions such as: economic dependency, impact on the employment of work resources, impact on the economic growth and on the public expenditure. The worrying evolutions in these social-economic segments are the result of the calculated indicators and their correlations, and these are: the economic dependency rates; the employment rate of the work resources; the correlations between the GDP/capita evolution and the share of the ageing population out of the total of population, between GDP/capita and the economic dependency rate of the ageing people, between the share of the savings in GDP and the share of the ageing people out of the total of population; the cost of the demographic ageing. In conclusion, acknowledging these realities, only to the extent to which the country will involve the ageing population in the process of goods and services creation, the economic development is possible. Without such a strategy, the macroeconomics disequilibrium will deepen and the demographic ageing will be a permanent obstacle to the growth of the standard of living.

Keywords: accelerated ageing, employment decrease, economic dependency.

Cuvinte cheie: îmbătrânire accelerată, scăderea ocupării, dependenţă economică.

 

Sociologie Românească, Vol. VIII, no. 4/2010, pp. 67-77.

 


 

SR_4_2010_copertaRomânia, într-un stadiu atipic al celei de a doua tranziţii demografice

Romania, in an Atypical Stage of the Second Demographic Transition

Cornelia Mureşan*

 

*University Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca

 

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Abstract: The last two decades of socioeconomic transition, started in Romania with the fall of the authoritarian communist regime and with the end of the centrally planned economy at the end of 1989, have been decades of important demographic changes, as well. This study tries to overview the onset of the Second Demographic Transition in the country, using The Netherlands as benchmark. We found that most of the “threshold levels” were surpassed in the period 1990-1996, even if some evolutions were onset much earlier and interrupted by the pro-natalist policies during the so-called “golden age” of communist times. Passed thresholds levels concern especially fall and long-lasting low fertility, postponement of childbearing and marriage (more marriage than childbearing), drop in marriage rates. However, a few other threshold levels have not yet been surpassed: marriage is still stable, ultimate celibacy is still rare, and modern contraception yet is not a current practice.

Keywords: Second Demographic Transition, low fertility, postponement of childbearing and marriage, weakening of marriage as an institution, contraceptive behavior, Romania.

Cuvinte cheie: a doua tranziţie demografică, nivel scăzut al fertilităţii, amânarea naşterii şi a căsătoriei, slăbirea instituţiei familiei, comportament contraceptiv, România.


Sociologie Românească, Vol. VIII, no. 4/2010, pp. 78-90.

 


 

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Deficit lingvistic, atitudini nepotrivite şi evaluare distorsionată: testarea a trei explicaţii pentru variaţia interetnică a rezultatelor şcolare ale elevilor de gimnaziu din Oradea

Linguistic Deficit, Inappropriate Attitudes and Distorted Assessment: Testing three Explanations for Ethnic Variation in the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Oradea

Adrian Hatos*

*University of Oradea

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Abstract: The article tests three alternative models explaining differences in grades between ethnic minority students and members of the ethnic majority: linguistic deficit, oppositional culture and ethnically biased evaluation which add to the commonly held theories of ability and social reproduction. Separate OLS models of grades, received by 7th graders from a sample of students from the ethnically mixed city of Oradea, in Maths, Romanian language, and learning of native language provided support for all three theses. Thus, besides from being in disadvantage concerning their grades in Romanian language classes, Hungarian students display lower levels of integration in schools – measured through scores of school satisfaction and school engagement, which explains their poorer results in Math whereas they receive positively adjusted grades in Hungarian language classes, enough to compensate for the other disadvantages.

Keywords: minority education, oppositional culture, education achievement.

Cuvinte cheie: educaţia pentru minorităţi, cultură de opoziţie, rezultate şcolare.

 

Sociologie Românească, Vol. VIII, no. 4/2010, pp. 32-66.

 


 

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Războiul exit pollurilor. Spre o paradigmă comunicaţional-discursivă asupra sondajelor de opinie şi opiniei publice

The Exit Polls War. Towards a Communicational-Discursive Paradigm on Polls and Public Opinion

Vasile Sebastian Dâncu*

 

*University of Bucharest

 

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Abstract: The present study analyses the controversies around surveys and exit polls that were conducted during the last election campaigns in Romania. Three aspects emerge following the analysis. First issue is the competition for the symbolic construction of the political field, competition in which the surveys’ discourse collides with those of the politicians and the media. Secondly, the interaction between the interviewer and the respondent could be regarded as similar to a process of symbolic violence, which may generate distortions.  Thirdly, the study also advances theoretical adjustments concerning public opinion analysis and the survey practice, from the point of view of a discursive, interactionist communication paradigm, within which the survey is seen as a scene for interaction, and, if it touches on a controversial issue, could cause the genesis of certain public opinion elements and could lead to the gathering of an audience. The author asserts that individuals have a certain mental representation of the common opinion and that they adjust their own opinions according to what they believe the common one is. The purpose of the climate of opinion is not that of social regulation or of social control; public opinion is a mechanism of mutual adjustment that enables people to be aware of and to take into account what other people are thinking. Surveys capture fragments pertaining to regular citizens’ discourses; these ordinary citizens are not content with applying interpretative frames conveyed by the media, they mobilize their own experiences and interpersonal discussions in order to negotiate the meaning of political issues.

Keywords: exit polls, politics, public opinion analysis, discourse, methodology.

Cuvinte cheie: exit polluri, politică, analiza opiniei publice, discurs, metodologie.